Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain , temperature , pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the property to measure modulates the intensity , phase , polarization , wavelength , or transit time of light in the fiber. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest, since only a simple source and detector are required. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can, if required, provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter. In contrast, highly localized measurements can be provided by integrating miniaturized sensing elements with the tip of the fiber.  These can be implemented by various micro- and nanofabrication technologies, such that they do not exceed the microscopic boundary of the fiber tip, allowing such applications as insertion into blood vessels via hypodermic needle.